The opinion of the International Court of Justice notes that this obligation concerns all parties to the NPT (not only the nuclear-weapon States) and does not propose a specific timetable for nuclear disarmament. [18] More recently, in 2009, the United States negotiated and signed new agreements with the United Arab Emirates (characterized by “gold standard” provisions) and Vietnam in 2014 and signed new agreements to replace existing agreements with Australia in 2010, Taiwan in 2013 (which also included “gold standard” provisions), China and South Korea in 2015, and Norway in 2016. The provisions of the “gold standard” refer to a country that agrees to refrain from enriching and reprocessing nuclear material. Article II: Each Party that is not a party to the NwS undertakes not to obtain nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices from any source; not to manufacture or acquire such weapons or devices; and not to receive any support in their production. As noted above, the International Court of Justice, in its opinion on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, stated that “there is an obligation to conduct and conclude negotiations in good faith that lead to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control”. [18] Some critics of the nuclear-weapon states claim that they have not complied with Article VI by not making disarmament the driving force behind national nuclear weapons planning and policy, although they call on other states to plan their security without nuclear weapons. [135] The NSG Guidelines currently exclude nuclear exports to Pakistan from all major suppliers, with a few exceptions, as the country does not have comprehensive IAEA safeguards (i.e., safeguards for all its nuclear activities). Pakistan has attempted to reach an agreement similar to India`s,[64] but these efforts have been rejected by the United States and other NSG members on the grounds that Pakistan`s track record as a supplier of nuclear proliferation makes it impossible to reach a nuclear deal in the near future. [Citation needed] The NPT is a historic international treaty whose objective is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to promote the goal of nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

The treaty is the only binding obligation of a multilateral treaty on the objective of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. The treaty was opened for signature in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. On 11 May 1995, the contract was extended indefinitely. A total of 191 States have acceded to the treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament treaty, reflecting the importance of the treaty. Although the IAEA is not a party to the NPT, it is entrusted with the main verification tasks arising from the Treaty. Any non-nuclear-weapon State that is a non-nuclear-weapon State party is required, under article III of the NPT, to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement with IAEA so that the IAEA can verify compliance with its obligations under the Treaty. Article 123 of the United States The Atomic Energy Act (AEA) of 1954 defines the terms and describes the process of greater nuclear cooperation between the United States and other countries. For a country to enter into such an agreement with the United States, it must commit to a set of nine non-proliferation criteria. As of January 15, 2019, the United States has concluded 26 nuclear cooperation agreements governing nuclear cooperation with 49 countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Taiwan. Article VI of the NPT is the only binding obligation of a multilateral treaty on the objective of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. The preamble to the NPT contains language that reaffirms the commitment of the signatories of the treaty to reduce international tensions and strengthen international confidence in order to one day create the conditions for a halt in the production of nuclear weapons, and for a treaty on general and complete disarmament, which, inter alia, liquidates nuclear weapons and their launchers from national arsenals.

Iraq has been found guilty by the IAEA of violating its security obligations and facing punitive sanctions from the UN Security Council. North Korea never complied with its NPT safeguards agreement and was repeatedly cited for these violations,[30] then withdrew from the NPT and tested several nuclear weapons. Iran was found in an unusual non-consensual decision against its NPT safeguard obligations because it “failed to report certain aspects of its enrichment program in a number of cases over a long period of time.” [31] [32] In 1991, Romania reported undeclared nuclear activities of the former regime, and the IAEA reported this non-compliance to the Security Council for information purposes only. Libya pursued a secret nuclear weapons program before it was abandoned in December 2003. The IAEA reported to the UN Security Council on Syria`s non-compliance with security measures, which took no action. . . .